Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia 2020-10-20T08:50:59+07:00 Prof. Dr. Muhammad Zairin Junior Open Journal Systems <p>Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia (JAI) is a scientific journal publishes empirical research and recent science development in aquaculture. JAI is published twice a year in January and July since 2002 by the Indonesian Society of Scientific Aquaculture (ISSA) in association with the Department of Aquaculture, Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science, Bogor Agricultural University. JAI accepts manuscripts written in English and in Bahasa (Indonesian). JAI only processes submitted original script related to aquaculture and not being published by other publishers. JAI has been registered in some indexing tools like Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Indonesian BASE, Publication Index (IPI), Google Scholar, Portal Garuda, Mendeley, SINTA, and IPB repository.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>p-ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">1412-5269</a>&nbsp; /&nbsp; e-ISSN <a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener">2354-6700</a></p> Supplementation of Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induced by Vibrio harveyi as an immunostimulant for controlling vibriosis in vannamei white shrimp under marine culture system 2020-09-06T21:08:43+07:00 Dinamella Wahjuningrum Teuku Reza Efianda Kustiariyah Tarman Munti Yuhana Irzal Effendi Fazril Saputra <p>ABSTRACT</p> <p><br>The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Nodulisporium sp. KT29 supplementation with various<br>Vibrio harveyi induction in feed against vibriosis in vannamei white shrimp. The study design included KP (positive<br>control without supplementation Nodulisporium sp. KT29 and infected with V. harveyi), KN (negative controls<br>without Nodulisporium sp. KT29 and infected with physiological solution), NT (treatment of supplementation<br>Nodulisporium sp KT29 20 mL/kg and infected with V. harveyi), NM (treatment of supplementation test<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induction of V. harveyi dead cell 20 mL/kg and infected V. harveyi), NH (treatment of<br>supplementation Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induction of V. harveyi live cell 20 mL/kg and infected with V. harveyi).<br>The study parameters included inhibition zone, resistance, immune responses, and hemolim glucose. The results<br>showed Nodulisporium sp. KT29 with induction treatment raised antibacterial activity with best treatment of NM<br>and NH (P&lt;0.05). The results of V. harveyi infection resistance presented NM treatment of 20 mL/kg increase<br>survival in vannamei shrimp reached 72.2% (P&lt;0.05). In addition, the same treatment increase the immune<br>response activity and decrease the activity of hemolim glucose. It could be concluded that providing NM 20 mL<br>treatment boosted the resistance and the immune system in vaname shrimp to control vibriosis reared at the sea.<br>Keywords: antibacterial, β-glucan, induced, Nodulisporium sp. KT29, Vibrio harveyi</p> <p><br>ABSTRAK</p> <p><br>Tujuan penelitian yaitu mengevaluasi efektivitas suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dengan berbagai perlakuan<br>induksi Vibrio harveyi dalam pakan terhadap pengendalian vibriosis pada udang vaname yang dibudidayakan di<br>laut. Rancangan penelitian meliputi KP (kontrol positif tanpa suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dan diinfeksi<br>V. harveyi), KN (kontrol negatif tanpa Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dan diinfeksi larutan fisiologis), NT (perlakuan<br>uji suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi), NM (perlakuan uji suplementasi<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 diinduksi sel mati V. harveyi 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi), NH (perlakuan uji<br>suplementasi Nodulisporium sp. KT29 induksi sel hidup V. harveyi 20 mL/kg dan diinfeksi V. harveyi). Parameter<br>penelitian meliputi zona hambat, resistensi, respons imun, dan glukosa hemolim. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan<br>Nodulisporium sp. KT29 dengan perlakuan induksi dapat meningkatkan aktivitas antibakteri dengan perlakuan<br>terbaik NM dan NH (P&lt;0.05). Hasil pengamatan resistensi infeksi V. harveyi menunjukkan perlakuan NM 20 mL/<br>kg dapat meningkatkan kelangsungan hidup pada udang vaname mencapai 72.2% (P&lt;0.05). Perlakuan yang sama<br>juga meningkatkan respons imun dan menurunkan aktivitas glukosa hemolim. Disimpulkan bahwa pemberian<br>NM 20 mL dapat meningkatkan resistensi dan sistem imun udang vaname terhadap pengendalian vibriosis di laut.<br>Kata kunci : antibakteri, β-glucan, induksi, Nodulisporium sp. KT29, Vibrio harveyi,</p> 2020-09-06T21:08:15+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Utilization of fermented sago pulp as a source of carbohydrate in feed for Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus 2020-09-14T13:24:57+07:00 I Kadek Sumiana Julie Ekasari Dedi Jusadi Mia Setiawati <p>ABSTRACT<br>This study aimed to evaluate sago pulp fermentation method and its effect on crude fiber content, digestibility, and utilization of sago pulp as a feed raw material for Nile tilapia. Fermentation was done using three different fermenters, i.e. yeast tapai and baker’s yeast with five doses of 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 50 g/kg,70 g/kg,100 g/kg, respectively, and sheep rumen liquid with five doses of 100 mL/kg, 200 mL/kg, 300 mL/kg, 500 mL/kg and 1000 mL/kg. The incubation time was 0, 24, 72, and 96 hours. In the digestibility test, tilapia (25 g) was stocked at a density of 7 fish/aquarium. Three different diets were applied in quadruplicate, i.e. reference diet (100% reference diet), unfermented sago pulp (AS), and fermented sago pulp (ASF). Three different dietary treatments (in quadruplicate) containing different carbohydrate sources were tested, i.e. cassava flour as a comparion (G), unfermented sago pulp (AS), and fermented sago pulp (ASF). Fermentation of sago pulp with tapai yeast at a dose of 50 g/kg at 72 hours incubation time could reduce crude fiber by 35.76%, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) by 32.68%, and hemicellulose by 60.39%. Fermentation with yeast tapai could significantly increase sago pulp dry matter digestibility by 34% and carbohydrate digestibility by 21%, as well as increase glucose absorption. The growth experiment showed that the use of ASF diets resulted in higher specific growth rate (3.31 ± 0.12%/ day), protein retention (47.34 ± 5.23%) and fat retention (85.58 ± 5.44%) than those of AS dietary. In conclusion, fermentation of sago pulp using yeast tapai at a dose of 50 g/kg at 72 hours incubation could reduce crude fiber content and increase dry matter and carbohydrate digestibilities, so that it can be used as a source of carbohydrates in tilapia diet.</p> <p><br>Keywords : carbohydrate, digestibility, fermentation, fiber, Nile tilapia, sago pulp</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>ABSTRAK</p> <p><br>Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi metode fermentasi ampas sagu dan pengaruhnya terhadap kandungan serat kasar, kecernaan, dan pemanfaatan ampas sagu sebagai bahan baku pakan ikan nila. Fermentasi dilakukan dengan penambahan tiga perlakuan bahan fermentor yaitu ragi tape dan ragi roti ditambahkan dengan dosis masing-masing sebanyak 10 g/kg, 20 g/kg, 50 g/kg, 70 g/kg, 100 g/kg, dan cairan rumen domba yang ditambahkan dengan dosis 100 mL/kg, 200 mL/kg, 300 mL/kg, 500 mL/kg, dan 1000 mL/kg. Lama waktu inkubasi 0, 24, 72, dan 96 jam. Pada uji kecernaan digunakan ikan nila (25 g) yang dipelihara dengan kepadatan tujuh ekor per akuarium. Pada uji ini dilakukan tiga perlakuan pakan dengan empat ulangan, yaitu pakan acuan, ampas sagu tanpa fermentasi (AS), dan ampas sagu fermentasi (ASF). Percobaan dilakukan dengan tiga perlakuan pakan (4 ulangan) dengan tiga sumber karbohidrat yang berbeda yaitu gaplek (G) sebagai pembanding, ampas sagu (AS), dan ampas sagu fermentasi (ASF). Fermentasi ampas sagu dengan menggunakan ragi tape sebanyak 50 g/kg dengan lama inkubasi 72 jam dapat menurunkan serat kasar tertinggi sebanyak 35.76%, dan menurunkan fraksi serat neutral detergent fiber (NDF) dan hemisellulosa masing-masing sebanyak 32.68% dan 60.39%. Perlakuan fermentasi ampas sagu dapat meningkatkan nilai kecernaan bahan sebesar 34%, kecernaan karbohidrat sebesar 21%, serta penyerapan glukosa. Hasil uji pertumbuhan menunjukkan bahwa perlakuan ASF memberikan nilai laju pertumbuhan spesifik (3.31 ± 0.12%/hari), retensi protein (47.34 ± 5.23%) dan retensi lemak (85.58 ± 5.44%) yang lebih tinggi dibandingkan perlakuan AS (P&lt;0.05). Dapat disimpulkan bahwa fermentasi ampas sagu dengan menggunakan ragi tape pada dosis 50 g/kg selama 72 jam dapat menurunkan kadar serat kasar dan meningkatkan kecernaan bahan dan karbohidrat sehingga dapat digunakan sebagai sumber karbohidrat pada pakan ikan nila.</p> <p><br>Kata kunci : ampas sagu, fermentasi, ikan nila, karbohidrat, kecernaan, serat <br><br></p> 2020-09-14T13:24:56+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Immune responses and resistance of white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) fed Probiotic Bacillus sp NP5 and prebiotic honey against White Spot Syndrome Virus infection 2020-09-18T10:05:02+07:00 Widanarni Widanarni Dewi Rahmi Muhamad Gustilatov Sukenda Sukenda Diah Ayu Satyari Utami <div class="WordSection1"> <p align="center"><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>White spot disease</em> caused by <em>White Spot Syndrome Virus</em> (WSSV) is the most serious viral disease and has a major impact on the decline in production of white shrimp farm. Improving the immune response through the application of prebiotic, probiotic and synbiotic is expected to be one of the environmentally friendly alternatives to prevent the disease. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of administrating <em>Baccillus</em> sp. NP5 probiotic, honey prebiotic and a combination both (synbiotic) in enhancing immune response and resistence of white shrimp to WSSV infection. This study consisted of five treatments and three replications, namely positive control (feeding without probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics then challenged with WSSV), negative control (feeding without probiotics, prebiotics, synbiotics, then injected with PBS), pro (feeding with the addition of <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5 probiotics then challenged against WSSV), pre (feeding with the addition of honey prebiotics then challenged against WSSV), and sin (feeding with the addition of synbiotics then challenged against WSSV). White shrimp with an average weight of 1.8±0.06 gram/shrimp were reared at a density of 15 shrimps per aquarium (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm and water height of 20 cm) for eight weeks, then challenge against WSSV at lethal dose (LD<sub>50</sub>) dose as much as 0.1 ml per shrimp. The results showed that the immune response and resistence of white shrimp after treatments of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics were better than those in controls with the optimal found in prebiotics treatment.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, honey, immune response, white shrimp, WSSV</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p align="center"><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p align="center"><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>White spot disease</em> yang disebabkan oleh infeksi <em>white spot syndrome virus</em> (WSSV) merupakan penyakit viral paling serius dan berdampak besar terhadap penurunan produksi budidaya udang vaname. Perbaikan respons imun melalui aplikasi probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik dapat menjadi salah satu alternatif ramah lingkungan untuk pencegahan serangan penyakit tersebut. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengevaluasi pengaruh pemberian probiotik <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, prebiotik madu dan gabungan keduanya (sinbiotik) dalam meningkatkan respons imun dan resistansi udang vaname terhadap infeksi WSSV. Penelitian ini terdiri dari lima perlakuan dan tiga ulangan yaitu kontrol positif (pemberian pakan tanpa probiotik, prebiotik, dan sinbiotik kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV), kontrol negatif (pemberian pakan tanpa probiotik, prebiotik, dan sinbiotik kemudian diinjeksi PBS), pro (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan probiotik <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5 kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV), pre (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan prebiotik madu kemudian diuji tantang WSSV), dan sin (pemberian pakan dengan penambahan sinbiotik kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV). Udang vaname dengan bobot rata-rata 1.8±0.06 gram/ekor dipelihara dengan kepadatan 15 ekor per akuarium (60 cm x 30 cm x 30 cm) selama delapan minggu, kemudian diuji tantang dengan WSSV sebanyak 0.1 ml per ekor pada dosis LD<sub>50</sub>. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa respons imun dan resistansi udang vaname setelah pemberian probiotik, prebiotik dan sinbiotik lebih baik (P&lt;0.05) dibandingkan kontrol dengan hasil optimal pada perlakuan prebiotik.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: <em>Bacillus</em> sp. NP5, madu, respons imun, udang vaname, WSSV.</p> </div> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-09-18T10:05:01+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Evaluation of processed rubber seed oil Hevea brasiliensis utilization as lipid source in Clarias gariepinus feed 2020-10-09T10:50:20+07:00 Nuraini Annisa Muhammad Agus Suprayudi Mia Setiawati Ichsan Ahmad Fauzi <p><strong>ABSTRACT</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p><em>Clarias gariepinus</em> rearing is mostly done with intensive systems that use a lot of commercial feed. The price of raw material for the feed lipid source which is currently the main source of fatty acids in freshwater fish feed continues to increase and compete with human needs. Rubber seed oil (RSO) is considered feasible to be an alternative. This study aimed to evaluate the use of heated RSO as alternative lipid source in <em>C gariepinus </em>feed. The results of this study indicated that heating could reduce HCN levels in RSO by 95%. Even after heated RSO was inserted into the feed formulation there is still HCN in feed, however it did not affect the survival rate of <em>C. gariepinus</em> statistically. Heated RSO based feed shows a specific growth rate that was higher than non-heating RSO-based feed. Feeding with heated RSO also did not affect nutrient retention in <em>C. gariepinus</em>. This also followed by blood profile, blood chemistry and body fatty acids profile, MDA levels and SOD levels which were almost same as treatment feed using fish oil and corn oil. From these results, it can be concluded that heating can reduce 95% HCN content in RSO and can be used as a lipid source in <em>C. gariepinus</em> feed.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Keywords: Aquaculture, essential fatty acids, growth performance, HCN, rubber seed oil.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>ABSTRAK</strong></p> <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong></p> <p>Budidaya ikan lele <em>Clarias gariepinus</em> &nbsp;dengan sistem intensif menggunakan banyak pakan buatan. Harga bahan baku untuk sumber lemak pakan terus meningkat dan bersaing dengan kebutuhan manusia. Minyak biji karet (MBK) layak menjadi alternatif. Penelitian ini bertujuan mengevaluasi penggunaan MBK yang dipanaskan sebagai sumber lemak alternatif dalam pakan ikan lele. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan proses pemanasan dapat mengurangi kadar HCN pada MBK hingga 95%. Walaupun masih terdapat sejumlah kecil HCN pada pakan berbasis MBK yang dipanaskan, tetapi tidak memengaruhi tingkat kelangsungan hidup ikan lele (p&gt;0,05). Pakan berbasis MBK proses pemanasan menunjukkan laju pertumbuhan spesifik yang lebih tinggi dari pakan berbasis MBK yang tidak dipanaskan. Pemberian pakan berbasis MBK proses pemanasan juga tidak memengaruhi retensi nutrisi ikan lele. Demikian pula parameter profil darah, kimia darah, profil asam lemak tubuh, kadar MDA dan kadar SOD hampir sama dengan pakan perlakuan berbasis minyak ikan dan minyak jagung. Sehingga dapat disimpulkan MBK proses pemanasan dapat mengurangi 95% kandungan HCN dan dapat digunakan sebagai sumber lemak dalam pakan ikan lele.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p>Kata kunci: Akuakultur, asam lemak esensial, HCN, kinerja pertumbuhan, minyak biji karet.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2020-10-09T10:45:23+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia Nuclear DNA content variation within four species of Asian catfish of family Pangasidae and their two interspecific hybrids by flow cytometry 2020-10-20T08:50:59+07:00 Imron Evi Tahapari Jadmiko Darmawan Muhammad Luthfi Abdurachman <p><strong>&nbsp;</strong>Nuclear DNA content (NDC) of species or population is believed to have been formed naturally by many mechanisms such chromosomal mutation, insertion and deletion, transposable element, and duplication. Additionally, hybridizations and species’ phylogenetic relationship may also contribute to the NDC diversity. This study was aimed to investigate the profile of NDC in four species Asian catfishes of the genera Pangasius including <em>Pangasionodon hypophthalmus</em>,&nbsp; <em>Pangasius djambal, Pangasius nasusutus, Pangasius nieuwenhuisii</em>, interspecific hybrid of female <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> and male <em>P. djambal </em>(Hybrid HD<em>)</em>,&nbsp; and female <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> and male <em>P. nasutus </em>(Hybrid HN<em>). </em>Red blood cells (RBC) were taken from the respective species/groups and NDC measurement was performed in an Attune acoustic flowcytometer (ABI) using DAPI staining and chicken, <em>Gallus domesticus, RBC </em>was used as size reference. The results showed that the mean NDC of <em>P. hypophthalmus</em>, <em>P. djambal. P. nasusutus, P. nieuwenhuisii,</em> were 0.960±0.0254 pg, 1.017±0.0510 pg, 1.000±0.0410 pg, 1.074±0.0231 pg, which are within the range of NDC in the other catfish families The NDC values of Hybrid HD and Hybrid HN were1.005±0.0358 and 0.956± 0.0089, respectively. Among the pure line species, the NDC of <em>P. hypophthalmus</em> was the lowest and was different (P&lt;0.05) from those of <em>P. djambal</em> and <em>P. nieuwenhuisii </em>but was not different (P&gt;0.05) from that of the<em> P. nasutus. </em>The NDC of both Hybrid HD and Hybrid HN were not different form their respective parental lines. However, the NDC profiles of both hybrids were different in that the NDC of the former was in between while the latter was below their respective parental lines. Phylogenetically, the NDC diversity within Pangasiid catfish in this study was independent of their phylogenetic relationship based on cytoplasmic and nuclear markers.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Flow cytometry, nuclear DNA content, <em>P.hypophthalmus, P. djambal, P. nasutus, P. nieuwenhuisii, </em>interspecific hybrid.</p> 2020-10-19T12:32:51+07:00 Copyright (c) 2020 Jurnal Akuakultur Indonesia